It’s possible using a picture tag element and media queires. Quick example is bellow. You will need to read up on srcsets to find what queries work for you, but it is possible.
Then within the panel you can define two fields and output those into the relevant source. So your panel you can define 2 columns, left can be desktop as needed, right can be mobile as needed, the front end you output both fields into their sources.
Does that make sense?